DEMOCRACY vs. CLIENTELISM

 

DEMOCRACY

CLIENTELISM

Policy decisions made in the open after clear public debate, open for review Policy decisions made in secret, no public involvement
Institutional authority with official roles Personal authority, vested in individuals
Rule of law, free and fair elections, majority rule Personal enrichment and personal aggrandizement
Shared power, accountable office holders Monopolized power, unaccountable office holders
Transparent relationship between leaders and followers, predictable Opaque relationship between leaders and followers, unpredictable
Procedures and decision making standards are transparent and explicit. Procedures and decision making standards are opaque, and unclear to the population
Power derived from providing collective benefits, earning support from large groups Power derived from personal favors, securing loyalty
Strong procedures for leaders’ replacement Unclear procedures for leaders’ replacement
Deep civil society with horizontal links Fragmented civil society with vertical links
Appointments are transparent, and made on merit Appointments are made for patronage reasons
Decisions guided by public interest Decisions guided by personal interest or supporters’ interest
Political parties revolve around ideology and program Political parties revolve around persons

 

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